2022-11-03 10:11

英语原文共 49 页,剩余内容已隐藏,支付完成后下载完整资料



Adam C. Kelley

May 2011


This report discusses the design and initial testing of an e-book based on a

story by Sterling North, Rascal. The focus of the e-books design was to increase

students reading comprehension. Drawing on research in e-learning, vocabulary

development, and reading comprehension, the e-books design incorporated features

not in the original text, including narration, an interactive dictionary, and sections to

build students background knowledge. The e-book was pilot tested with six fifth-

grade students, who read the e-book and participated in a follow up survey and

interviews regarding specific features of the design. Students using the e-book

appeared to read above their grade level reading equivalent.












Digitized text is becoming more prevalent in society. For example, as of this

writing, Internet sources have overtaken printed sources as a source of news for a

majority of people in the United States (Rosensteil amp; Mitchell, 2011). Magazines and

books are also increasingly distributed in electronic format.

数字化文本在社会正变得越来越普遍。例如,对于大多数在美国的人来说(Rosensteil amp;米切尔,2011),写作、网络资源取代印刷,成为了一个新闻的来源。杂志和书也越来越多地分布在电子格式。

Although the transition to electronic text is being seen in society at large, the

phenomenon is less pronounced in K-12 classrooms. Larry Cuban (1996) discussed the

overall phenomenon as to why technological advancements may not be adopted in

classrooms. His fundamental conclusion was that people who are key to designing

technology for school settings do not take into consideration teacher perspectives. He

argued that teachers think of these fundamental questions: How much assistance will

students need to use the technology? Will there be problems with the technology? How

much training is needed to use it? Is there a considerable difference in learning

outcomes? Can I use the technology in many different ways? Cuban felt that unless

these concerns were better addressed by technology designers, teachers would not adopt

their products. In the end, those educational technologies that experts theorized would

revolutionize the classroom fell far short of expectations. In a similar vein, it is my

contention that if e-books are not designed specifically with teachers instructional goals

in mind, their potential to guide students and help make them more independent readers

will not be realized. On the other hand, e-books that are designed so that both teachers

and students learn to use them quickly, are challenging to high-achieving students, and

are supportive to below grade-level readers low comprehension could be very useful for

classroom use.

尽管过渡到电子文本中可以看到整个社会,现象在k - 12教室不太明显。拉里古巴(1996)讨论了为什么科技的进步在教室中可能不会被采用视的整体现象。他的基本结论是:人是设计技术的关键,所以学校的设置不考虑老师的观点。他认为,老师认为的这些基本的问题有:有多少帮助学生需要使用技术?这些技术会有问题吗?使用它需要训练多少?在学习有相当大的区别吗?结果呢?我可以在很多不同的方式上用这项技术吗?古巴认为除非这些问题更好被技术设计师解决,否则教师不会采用他们的产品。最后,那些专家的教育技术理论彻底改变了课堂的期望。同样,它是我的观点,如果电子书不是专门按照教师的教学目标设计,他们,引导学生,使他们变成更加独立的读者的潜力将不会实现。另一方面,设计的电子书以便于老师和学生都能够迅速学会使用它们,在教室里使用,挑战高分学生,支持以下年级水平的读者理解低可能是非常有用的。

Statement of the Problem


Traditional books pose a problem for many students in schools. They assume that

all readers read at or above grade level. According to the Department of Education, a

typical class of sixth graders has a reading range between 8 and 16 years (Johnson, 1998).

This wide variety of learning needs is an important component in todays classroom

which is why many school districts are looking at ways to provide interventions to

increase student success in a timely and meaningful manner. Traditional books force

teachers in most cases to teach toward the middle of classroom abilities. This happens

because little time is reserved to provide a challenge for students reading above grade-

level or support for students below grade-level. Instead, teachers invest more time

targeting the largest group of students in a classroom, which are typically the grade-level

readers. The end result is that high-achieving students experience boredom, while

struggling students fall further behind.



The majority of e-books do not incorporate any interactivity to support the wide variety of learning needs seen in a typical classroom. These e-books are simply static digitized text. E-books that work with platforms like Amazons Kindlereg; and Sonys Readerreg; are interactive; however, they have their drawbacks if used in an educational setting. The first is the high initial cost and subsequent maintenance and replacement costs of the units themselves. Another problem is that the interactive elements are not truly beneficial for students. For example, providing the definition of an unknown word only eliminates the need to physically look the word up in the dictionary. Good readers, however, do more than simply look up words they do not know the meaning of. They use a wide variety of context clues, knowledge of base words, and other critical thinking skills to derive me



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