马来西亚景观设计理念的发展外文翻译资料

 2023-01-17 09:45:23

Introduction

The development of landscape design concept in Malaysia is becoming popular and significant due to the increasing awareness of design, the environment and the quality of life. The traditional Malay landscape design concept is a concept for the landscape design that deals with the characteristics of a traditional private garden of the Malay villages along Peninsular Malaysia. This paper discusses about the study of the features of traditional Malay landscape design as the main elements for the development of the Malay garden concept and more importantly to the impact and the response of the global communities regarding traditional Malay landscape garden design. The research also highlights the dependability of the traditional Malay landscape design in generating a sustainable environment and resolve the issues related to the quality of life throughout the decades. Therefore, to support a sustainable landscape design, researchers have focused on the characteristic of the traditional Malay landscape elements including their identity which rarely known by Malaysian especially Malays that have been used either in the gardens in the past, especially the palace garden, the home of the traditional Malays villages and the vicinity at that time.

Literature review

    1. The concept of the Malay garden design

The Malay garden design concept is an initiative in establishing the identity of the Malay garden design and the reinstatement of this design concept exclusive to the Malays as the indigenous community of Malaysia. It is not only provides an opportunity to known better but more often for raising and maintain its uniqueness.

The Malay garden design is planned circumspectly through harmonious interactions between man, nature and culture, which translated into the home design and the surroundings (Anisa Ani, 2012). According to Abdul Rahman Al-Ahmadi (2003), Malays is known for their philosophy of manufacturing or construction of something as a symbol of symbolism, means that either implicitly or explicitly based on the relationship with God, their environment as well as the human being. The strength of the Malay garden design is plants (soft landscape) and landscape furniture (hard landscape) as well as their composition and the interaction between internal and external spaces. It is unique because it clearly symbolizes the culture of the Malays in the past and shows the Malays has a substantial knowledge in term of plant functions in the garden or their environment.

    1. Traditional Malay landscape design

The main compositions of the traditional Malay landscape design consist of the design concept and their two main components that are soft landscape elements and hard landscape elements.

Traditional Malay house compound separated into three main areas that are front compound, side compound, and rear compound. The placements of landscape furniture as well as plant species are dependent on its role on a different compound. Frequently, traditional Malay people develop their garden to meet the synchronization with the environment that is the concept, activities, and function. According to Nur Huzeima Hussain (2010), hard landscape element categories as the artificial components. It is the design of an extra element that complements the design of a garden. Referring to the Ismail Said (2002), the overall design of the traditional Malays garden and its features are

partly influenced by ethnicity belief of the resident in general, it consists of vernacular timber houses laid in a garden of fruit trees, edible shrubs, herbs, flowering and fragrant plants in the landscape furniture design.

Fig. 1. Typical layout of traditional Malay house compound along Peninsula Malaysia divided into three primary compounds; (1) Front compound or front yard known by its ample space for the ceremony as well as playing area for community and full of aesthetic landscape elements. (2) Side compound located either on the left or right side of the traditional Malay house and functions as a space for social interaction between family members, bathing and washing area as well as for drying clothes (suspension) and as a space routes connecting the front and rear compound. (3) Rear compound that commonly used by the women to gather during feasts, as well as the space for kitchen activities, livestock, edible garden, bangsal as a store and space for trash disposal (perun)

    1. Traditional Malay revivalism

The search for national identity seems to be a must for countries which have either newly become independent or a leadership that stresses certain groups of race as being 'better' than others (Mohammad Tajuddin, 2005). In addition, he also stated that there are no fewer than three different identities in any national architectural mechanism; a natural identity, a forced identity, and a manufactured identity. In addition, Said (2001) commented that in Malaysia, the cultural landscape as well as the traditional landscape design is widely practiced in rural areas but is lacking in the urban residential communities.

A native identity defined as one which has what the modernist thinkers refer as a 'spirit of the times' and present post-modernist concern of a 'spirit of the place'. The entire design concept supposed to acquire real character if it responds religiously to the idea of both spirits.

The idea of the strength of mind of the times refers to a straight reaction of the users and builders of the available technology, the structural know-how and the economic consideration of a particular time. The idea of spirit of place is less tangible, but evokes the sense of local uniqueness derived from natural and cultural features, and personal associations. It has become our responsibility to raise the concept of th

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  1. 介绍

随着人们对设计、环境和生活质量的认识不断提高,马来西亚景观设计理念的发展越来越受到人们的欢迎和重视。马来传统景观设计概念是一个景观设计的概念,它涉及到马来西亚半岛马来村庄传统私家园林的特点。本文论述了研究马来传统园林设计的特点,作为马来园林理念发展的主要元素,更重要的是对全球社会对马来传统园林设计的影响和反应。研究还强调了马来传统景观设计在创造可持续环境方面的可靠性,并解决了几十年来与生活质量有关的问题。因此,为了支持可持续的景观设计,研究者们将重点放在马来传统景观元素的特征上,包括他们的身份,马来西亚人尤其是马来人很少知道的过去在花园中使用的特征,特别是宫殿花园,马来传统村落的家园以及当时的附近地区。

2.1.马来花园设计理念

马来人花园设计概念是一项建立马来人花园设计特征的倡议,并恢复马来人独有的作为马来西亚土著社区的设计概念。它不仅提供了一个更好地了解的机会,而且更经常地提高和保持其独特性。

通过人、自然和文化之间的和谐互动,精心规划马来花园设计,并将其转化为家居设计和周围环境(Anisa Ani,2012)。根据Abdul Rahman Al-Ahmadi(2003年)的说法,马来人以制造或建造象征性的东西的哲学而闻名,这意味着无论是含蓄的还是明确的,都是基于与上帝、他们的环境以及人类的关系。马来园林设计的强项是植物(软景观)和景观家具(硬景观)以及它们的构成和内外空间的相互作用。它之所以独特,是因为它清楚地象征着过去马来人的文化,并表明马来人对花园或其环境中的植物功能有着丰富的知识

2.2.马来传统景观设计

马来人传统景观设计的主要组成部分包括设计理念和软景观元素和硬景观元素两个主要组成部分。

传统的马来族宅院分为三个主要区域,即前院、侧院和后院。景观家具和植物种类的放置取决于其在不同化合物中的作用。传统的马来人经常开发他们的花园,以满足与环境的同步,即概念、活动和功能。根据Nur Huzeima Hussain(2010),硬景观元素分类为人工成分。它是一个额外元素的设计,补充了花园的设计。参考Ismail Said(2002),传统马来人花园的总体设计及其特点是

在景观家具设计中,部分受一般居民民族信仰的影响,由果树、食用灌木、草本植物、花卉和芳香植物组成的园林式木屋组成。

马来西亚半岛马来族传统民居大院的典型布局分为三个主要大院:(1)前院或前院,以其宽敞的仪式空间和社区游戏区而闻名,充满了美学景观元素。(2) 侧院落位于传统马来人住宅的左侧或右侧,作为家庭成员之间的社交空间、洗浴区、晾晒衣物(悬挂)的空间以及连接前后院落的空间路线。(3) 妇女在宴会期间通常用来聚集的后部建筑群,以及厨房活动、牲畜、可食花园、孟加拉作为储藏室和垃圾处理场所的空间(佩伦)

2.3.传统马来复兴主义

对于那些新近独立的国家或强调某些种族群体比其他种族“更好”的领导层来说,寻求民族认同似乎是必须的(Mohammad Tajuddin,2005)。此外,他还指出,在任何国家的建筑机制中,不少于三种不同的身份:自然身份、强制身份和人造身份。此外,Said(2001)评论说,在马来西亚,文化景观以及传统景观设计在农村地区广泛应用,但在城市居住社区却缺乏。

一种本土认同,被定义为具有现代主义思想家所称的“时代精神”和当下后现代主义所关注的“地方精神”。整个设计概念应该获得真正的特点,如果它的宗教回应的想法,两个精神。

时代精神力量的概念是指一个特定时期的现有技术、结构知识和经济考虑的使用者和建设者的直接反应。地方精神的概念不那么具体,但唤起了从自然和文化特征以及个人联想中获得的地方独特感。我们有责任将这一传统作为国家卓越的象征加以弘扬。

2.4.马来西亚景观设计和规划问题

马来人的村庄居住环境,由当地的木屋组成,采用简单的现场平面图随机布局(Mohammad Rusdi,2012)。马来西亚的历史城市描绘了独特的当地文化、重要的历史遗迹和杰出的遗产建筑。马六甲有着悠久的历史和独特的地方文化,被广泛认为是一个文化城市。

然而,在不断采用西方风格和其他设计理念的过程中,建筑结构和景观忽视了环境、气候因素,更重要的是马来西亚的马来文化,这导致了文化结构发展中的认同问题。

根据沃森(2007)的研究,马来西亚是那些快速增长的国家之一,在设计一个当代的地方时,快速增长的趋势会带来新的、具有挑战性的问题——身份。例如,像吉隆坡这样快速发展的城市,通过与全球化世界经济相关的发展类型产生了高形象,同时也提出了复杂的多元文化设计问题。此外,Mohammad Rusdi(2012)指出,建设马来西亚新国家最具挑战性的问题是需要让该国不同的社会文化群体参与进来。每一个国家都对自己有着强烈的感情和看法,认为自己是一个独特的想象中的社区,同时又属于一个现代民族国家,对马来西亚的整体身份有着强烈的信念。

Shuhana(2012)定义,历史城市景观(HUL)中的景观方法是通过考虑原始环境、物理形式的相互关系、社会文化、空间组织和与自然特征的联系来保护、管理和观察历史区域的价值。HUL还描述了人类、经济和社会发展的文化运动以及管理社会和物质变革的工具。

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