软件缺陷管理系统的设计与实现外文翻译资料

 2022-11-01 15:04:35

英语原文共 11 页,剩余内容已隐藏,支付完成后下载完整资料


目 录

Change Begets Change 3

1.1 Web Users 4

1.2 Technology 5

1.3 Software Development 6

1.4 What Has Not Changed 8

1.4.1 The Nature of the Web 8

1.4.2 Server-Driven Web Development Considered Harmful 9

1.5 Why Client-Server Web Applications? 10

1.5.1 Code Organization/Software Architecture 10

1.5.2 Flexibility of Design/Use of Open Source APIs 10

1.5.3 Prototyping 11

1.5.4 Developer Productivity 11

1.5.5 Application Performance 11

1.6 Conclusion 13

变化引起的变化 14

1.1 Web用户 14

1.2技术 15

1.3软件开发 16

1.4哪些东西没变 17

1.4.1 Web的本质 17

1.4.2服务器驱动的Web开发被认为是有害的 18

1.5为什么要客户端/服务器端的Web应用 19

1.5.1代码的组织结构/软件结构 19

1.5.2 “设计的灵活性”和 “开源API的使用” 19

1.5.3 原型 19

1.5.4 开发者的效率 20

1.5.5 应用性能 20

1.6小结 21

Change Begets Change

The entrepreneur always searches for a change, responds to it, and exploits it as an opportunity.

—Peter Drucker

What kinds of changes encourage developers to adopt a client-server approach? Shifts in user behavior, technology, and software development process are the significant forces that have driven developers to change their patterns of design. Each of these factors, in a unique and significant way, makes established patterns obsolete. Together they have encouraged related innovations and a convergence in practice despite the absence of enforcement or mandated standardization.

Web users have changed. In the early days of the Web, users were satisfied with static pages and primitive user interfaces. The modern Web user has come to expect a high-performance, interactive, well-designed, dynamic experience. These higher expectations were met with an explosion in new technologies and expansion of Web browser capabilities. Todayrsquo;s Web developer needs to use tools and a development approach that are aligned with the modern Web scene.

Technology has changed. Browsers and JavaScript engines are faster. Workstations and laptops are far more powerful, to say nothing of the plethora of mobile devices now being used to surf the Web. Web service APIs are the expectation for a modern Web application rather than a rare additional feature. Cloud computing is revolutionizing the deployment and operation of Web applications

Software development has changed. The now popular “Agile Manifesto” values:

bull;Individuals and interactions over processes and tools

bull;Working software over comprehensive documentation

bull;Customer collaboration over contract negotiation

bull;Responding to change over following a plan

It is now possible to quickly spin up Web applications that prove—at least on a small scale—the viability of a given technology. There is tremendous value to prototyping. As Fred Brooks, author of The Mythical Man Month(Addison-Wesley Professional), famously stated: “Plan to throw one away; you will, anyhow.” A prototype can allow for early customer or end user interaction that helps solidify requirements early in the process. It is no longer an insurmountable task to write a functional Web application in a matter of minutes.

1.1 Web Users

Modern Web application users have well-defined expectations about how they will be able to interact with a Web application:

bull;Web applications will be available across multiple platforms.

bull;They will provide a consistent experience across devices.

bull;They will respond with little or no latency.

The Gartner group claims that in 2014, the personal cloud will replace the PC at the center of usersrsquo; digital lives. There are many implications for Web app development. Users are more technologically savvy and have high expectations for site responsiveness. They are less passive than in previous years and instead are interactive and engaged. Websites need to be designed in a way that suggests no limitations in the ability of a browser to mimic native application experience.

Users expect an application to be exposed in various ways and available in different situations. Responsive design and support for multiple browsers, platforms, and devices are the new norm. The use of JavaScript libraries and frameworks is essential to support the wide variety of target clients.

The New York Times recently reported on the impatience of Web users. Among its findings: a companyrsquo;s website will be visited less often than that of a close competitor if it is slower by more than 250 milliseconds. Performance needs to be a key consideration in Web application development.

1.2 Technology

Java Web application developers are typically familiar with server-side dynamic content.J2EE and JSP have been refined into JEE and JSF. Projects such as Spring provide additional capabilities geared toward server-side development. This mode of development made a great deal of sens

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