2022-11-29 11:35:51

Business Model Innovation: Itrsquo;s Not Just about Technology Anymore

作者:Henry Chesbrough


出处:Strategy amp; Leadership, 2007(6) Vol.35:12-17


What is a business model?

Every company has a business model, whether they articulate it or not. At its heart, a business model performs two important functions: value creation and value capture. First, it defines a series of activities, from procuring raw materials to satisfying the final consumer, which will yield a new product or service in such a way that there is net value created throughout the various activities. This is crucial, because if there is no net creation of value, the other companies involved in the set of activities wonrsquo;t participate. Second, a business model captures value from a portion of those activities for the firm developing and operating it. This is equally critical, for a company that cannot earn a profit from some portion of its activities cannot sustain those activities over time.

There can be real tensions between the aspects of a business model that create value and those that help to capture a portion of that value. A high-value proprietary technology, for example, easily earns a profit for the firm, if alternatives offer lesser value. But in many circumstances customers are reluctant to buy such products (because of price, limited availability, or delivery or service issues).Yet making the technology more open, which makes it more appealing to customers, makes it harder to capture value from the offering. So these offsetting factors must be balanced. How to define a business model? The term lsquo;lsquo;business modelrsquo;rsquo; is often used, but not often clearly defined. Richard S. Rosenbloom, Professor Emeritus of Harvard, and I have developed a specific working definition (see Exhibit 1)[1].

A better business model often will beat a better idea or technology.

One benefit of this working definition is that each of its six parameters identifies where innovation might generate new value in an industry.

Value proposition. The GE Aircraft engines unit crafted an innovative value proposition when they shifted from selling airlines jet engines to selling them flight hours. This shifted the risk of downtime from the airline customer to GE, and enabled GE to establish a very profitable service operation.

Target market. Ryanair, a growing European discount airline, innovated a different target market by going after leisure travelers, instead of the usual business travelers.

Value chain. Wal-Mart (which targeted an innovative market by going after underserved rural communities in its early days) is celebrated for its management of its supply chain.

Revenue mechanism(s). Xerox got its start in the copier business by leasing its copiers, instead of selling them. Air Products gets paid for the delivery of its industrial gases right to the manufacturing station inside the plant, instead of by the box car.

Value network or ecosystem. Ryanair again innovated here, by striking novel arrangements with underutilized regional airports. Ryanair gets a percentage of concession sales at these airports, and in some circumstances even gets paid for landing passengers at the airports.

Competitive strategy.. One interesting aspect of business models is how difficult it is for others to imitate them. Many airlines have tried to emulate Southwestrsquo;s low cost approach. Most of their attempts have not fared well. Copying the Southwest model apparently creates too many conflicts with the airlinesrsquo; established business model.

Thus this working definition points the way to certain improvements that can be made to a business model. But more can be done to improve a specific business model if managers think of stages of business model advancement. The Business Model Framework (BMF) is a model that sequences possible business models from very basic (and not very valuable) models to far more advanced (and very valuable) models. Using the BMF, companies can assess where their current business model stands in relation to its potential and then define appropriate next steps for the further advancement of that model.

The Business Model Framework

Type 1 – Company has an undifferentiated business model. The vast majority of companies operating today do not articulate a distinct business model, and lack a process for managing it. These companies are operating with Type 1 business models. A business using the undifferentiated model competes on price and availability, and serves customers who buy on those criteria. In a word, firms utilizing Type 1 business models are selling commodities, and are doing so in ways that are no different from many, many other firms. They often are caught in the lsquo;lsquo;commodity traprsquo;rsquo;. Think of restaurants and barber shops as examples of this commodity model.

Type 2 – Company has some differentiation in its business model. In companies using Type 2 business models, the company has created some degree of differentiation in its products or services. This differentiation can also lead to a different business model from that of the Type 1 company, allowing the company to target a customer other than those that buy simply upon price and availability (such as a performance-oriented customer). This allows the Type 2 company to serve a different and less congested market segment from that served by its Type 1 counterpart.

The Type 2 company may lack the resources and staying power to invest in the supporting innovations to sustain its differentiated position. This gives rise to the pattern of so-called lsquo;lsquo;one hit wondersrsquo;rsquo;, where a company or inventor has a successful first product, but is unable to follow up this success with additional products of similar success. Many technology startup companies fall into this type.

Type 3 – Company develops a segmented business model. The company now can compete in different










如何界定商业模式?“商业模式”一词已司空见惯,却很少有明确的定义。哈佛大学名誉教授理查德·S·罗森布鲁姆(Richard S. Rosenbloom)和我做了一个明确有效的界定(见表1)。





收益机制。施乐(Xerox)的复印机业务始于复印机出租而不是出售。空气化工产品(Air Products)从直接运送其工业气体到制造商工厂内的基地(而非通过棚车)获利。
























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