拉丁美洲的法治:司法改革的国际推动外文翻译资料

 2022-11-19 04:11

司法改革试点的制度功能与完善路径研究

Rule of Law in Latin America: The International Promotion of Judicial Reform

P Domingo, R Sieder

This article offers an informative, interesting, and reflective analysis of a timely topic: the experiences, successes, and failures of the international promotion of judicial reform and the rule of law in Latin America. The project originated in a conference titled 'Issues in Judicial Reform in Latin America: International Organisations, NGOs, and Rule of Law Construction,' convened by Rachel Sieder in November 1999 at the Institute of Latin American Studies. In the resulting volume, seven authors with backgrounds in law and political science successfully approach the issue of the rule of law from different angles. The authors draw on their research experience at well-known universities as well as the three most significant international donors in Latin America in the field of justice reform: the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID); the World Bank, and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). Besides adding credibility to their analyses, this diversity in backgrounds ensures that each of the chapters adds new insights. Judicial reform has gained widespread international attention only during the last decade and a half. As this collection demonstrates, however, judicial reform was also an issue of concern during the 1960s. The wave of dictatorships that dominated the region in the 1970s interrupted the plans of reform-minded judges and politicians; thanks largely to the interest of the international organizations (principally development agencies and banks), judicial reform reappeared on the agenda of practically every Latin American country after the return to democratic rule-or the end of civil war, in the cases of Guatemala and El Salvador-in the 1980s and early 1990s. Ten years later, judicial reform has become one of the major concerns of politicians and academics interested in state reform and democratic consolidation. Though there is a growing literature on the role of international organizations in the reform process, most of these books have been written from the point of view of a specific organization. Few books have tried to give an overview of the role the donor community has played in defining the reform agenda and contributing to its implementation. This book intends to fill that gap. The main contributions of this edited volume are to map out the history of international involvement in the promotion of the rule of law, identify the main areas of concern, outline some of the complexities and problems involved when many international actors wish to be involved in roughly the same types of activities in the same sector, and offer an assessment of how successful international organizations have been in strengthening the rule of law. The book raises a series of important practical concerns connected to these issues and offers a battery of empirical examples to illustrate the breadth and depth of involvement of various international actors. As the editors point out, the dual, largely parallel, and frequently donor-supported processes of political democratization and economic liberalization have increasingly caused international donor organizations to view the rule of law as 'a critical aspect of governance and a central focus of policy concern' (p. 1). This is not a particularly novel view, as there is widespread recognition among international donors, as well as governments in Latin America, that the reform of the regions weak and ineffective judicial systems is vital in order to achieve common goals, such as 'democratic governance, economic stability, respect for human rights, social justice, and citizen security' (p. 1). Nevertheless, in spite of the general agreement on the necessity of reform, there is still widespread disagreement on the definition of 'the rule of law.' One of the main undertakings of this book is to illustrate some of this complexity. The different authors address such questions as the effectiveness of reforms, the assessment of donor initiatives, the international interest in judicial reform, the objectives of the reforms, the consultation processes preceding the reforms, the monitoring of reform projects, the relationships between international organizations and national governments, and the cooperation between various international organizations in promoting their objectives. Thomas Carothers in his introductory chapter provides a short but comprehensive overview of the issues at stake in international rule of law promotion. He discusses in some detail the four main areas of concern driving international justice reform initiatives: democracy enhancement, economic development, human rights and social justice, and international law enforcement. Because these areas are so different, he argues, international donors have multiple agendas that risk encountering conflicting policy objectives and policy domains. Instead of viewing this multiplicity as a problem, Carothers argues, various donors need to take this complexity into account. Luis Salas in chapter 2 maps out the interesting and perhaps lesser-- known history of judicial reform in more detail. Going back to the U.S.-- sponsored law and development movement of the 1960s, Salas shows how these reform efforts, attempted mainly by USAID and U.S. legal scholars, were part of a broader U.S. foreign policy democratization agenda that included legislative reform, improvement of public administration, and public safety. This project failed, and USAID abandoned justice reform as a tool of development. Using empirical examples from various countries, Salas further illustrates how the donors picked up the issue again after the return to democratic rule in the 1980s, in response to the large-scale human rights violations that had taken place. They shifted their focus primarily to the administration of justice initiatives. It is interesting to n

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拉丁美洲的法治:司法改革的国际推动

P Domingo,R Sieder

本文对时下热门的国际推动司法改革的经验,成功和失败以及在拉丁美洲法治等话题展开了一个富有信息,有趣和值得思考的分析。该项目起源于题为 “在拉丁美洲司法改革的问题:国际组织,非政府组织和法制建设的规律,”的会议。在拉丁美洲研究所于1999年11月在Rachel Sieder召开。在会议上,七位法学和政治学背景的作者从不同的角度规阐述了在成功解决法律问题的方法。作者描述了他们在知名高校以及在拉丁美洲司法改革领域的三个最显著国际捐助者:美国国际开发署(USAID);世界银行和美洲开发银行(IDB)的研究经历。这种多元化的背景除了增加他们的分析的可信度,而且保证了每个章节中增加了新的见解。在过去十年半司法改革已经获得了广泛的国际关注。正如过去研究表明,司法改革也是20世纪60年代期间关注的问题。在20世纪70年代独裁统治的浪潮占主导地位的地区,具有改革创新精神的法官和政客的计划被中断了;很大程度上要归功于国际组织(主要是发展机构和银行)的利益,司法改革又出现在内战结束后的几乎所有拉美国家,民主制度议程被恢复,例如20世纪80年代在危地马拉和和90年代初在萨尔瓦多。十年后,司法改革已经成为对国家改革和巩固民主感兴趣的政治家和学者所主要关注的问题之一。尽管有关于国际组织在改革过程中的作用的研究越来越多,然而这些书大部分都是从已经从一个特定组织的角度编写。很少有研究从全局的角度对捐助者在确定改革议程,并推动其执行所起的作用进行了概述。这本书旨在填补这一空白。该研究的主要贡献是描述国际法治的发展历史,确定主要关注的领域,明确指出出包括许多国际行动者希望参与粗略同类型的在同一个部门的活动等问题的复杂性,并提供了对于如何加强国际组织的法治建设的评估。这本书提出了一系列的有关于这些问题的实际想法,并提供了实证例子来说明各种国际组织参与的广度和深度。

正如编辑指出的那样,双重的政治民主化和经济自由化,基本上平行的和经常由捐助者支持的进程越来越引起国际捐助组织的关注,将法治视为治理的一个关键方面,并成为政策关注的焦点“(第1页)。这是不是一个特别新颖的观点,因为有国际捐助者,以及在拉美各国政府的广泛认可,该地区的积弱不振司法系统的改革是为了实现共同的目标,如“民主治理至关重要,经济稳定,尊重人权,社会正义的尊重,和公民安全”(第1页)。然而,尽管对改革的必要性达成广泛一致同意,但仍有上的对于“法治”的不同定义。本书的主要目的是阐述这些复杂性。许多学致力于解决改革的成效,捐助者的举措进行评估,在司法改革的国际利益,改革的目标,改革之前的协商进程,改革项目的监测,国际组织之间的关系各国政府,并促进其目标的各种国际组织之间的合作的这些问题。卡罗瑟斯在他的介绍本章提供的问题,对法律促进国际规则的股权简短等进行了全面的概述。他讨论了关于加强民主,经济发展,人权和社会公正,和国际执法等四个主要领域推动国际司法改革举措的一些细节。因为这些领域存在差异,他认为国际捐助者在面对政策目标和政策领域存在冲突的多个议题面临风险。相反,观看这种多重性是一个问题的,卡罗瑟斯认为,各捐助方需要将这种复杂性考虑在内。路易斯·萨拉斯在第2章司法改革中指出,对于历史的描述反应出更多的细节。在美国20世纪60年代发起的法律与发展运动,萨拉斯描述了这些改革努力,主要由美国国际开发署和美国法律学者,是一个更广泛的美国外交政策的民主化议程,其中包括立法改革,公共改进的一部分管理和公共安全。这个项目失败了,美国国际开发署放弃了司法改革作为发展的工具。采用实例来自不同国家,萨拉斯进一步说明了捐助者如何在20世纪80年代恢复民主制度后,再次提出问题,响应于已经发生的大规模侵犯人权行为。他们将其重点主要的司法举措的管理。有趣的是,要注意的是法律改革运动在20世纪90年代被更新,现在的标题下的“法治”。但随着萨拉斯指出,因为大量捐助者在广泛的领域正在与促进法治,缺乏努力,缺乏透明度相结合的合作已成为一个日益严重的问题。这种不断影响司法改革的成效。萨拉斯对于十年之后由于国际捐助者支持的拉丁美洲司法部门,司法系统似乎面临比以往更深的危机的结论持否定态度。

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